Bid Book » Book1 » Environment and Meteorology » Specific Features
There are a number of industrial, scientific, educational and medical establishments in Moscow equipped with ionizing radiation sources. Consequently, a comprehensive system of radiation safety is in force in the city and it regulates the following areas:
- Radiation-environmental monitoring,
- Foodstuffs and construction materials radionuclide content control,
- Radioactive waste management,
- Elimination of local sites of radioactive contamination,
- Recording of individual irradiation doses,
- Radiation-hygienic conditioning of city's territory.
The Radon Scientific and Production entity is responsible for monitoring the radiation condition in the city and radioactive waste management.
The radiation-environmental monitoring programme covers virtually all the city's area (some 1,000 km2) and is comprised of both fixed and mobile control devices.
The fixed devices include a ground observation network with 134 stations for soil, grass, leaves and snow sampling and absorption dose measurement. There are 64 river stations for surface water and bottom sediments sampling, 6 stations for ambient aerosols as well as 50 round-the-clock automatic detectors installed in each administrative district alongside highways, at large enterprises and sites of population concentration.
The mobile devices produce a gamma survey of the road network in city's industrial and housing areas. They also assess the radiation level of the major waterways of the Moscow region in order to exercise water quality control, including the water reservoirs used for supplying the city.
Multiyear measuring has proven that the radiation level in the city complies with appropriate standards and has remained stable. Some 2/3 of the statistical individual irradiation levels are caused by natural background, 1/3 by medical research and procedures, and only 1% accounts for induced radiation. Since measurement began in the city, no environmental emergencies have occurred in Moscow.