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General Geographical Features Of The Moscow City And Its Surroundings
Moscow is located in the central part of the Middle-Russian Upland. Its gentle terrain – on average, 30-35 m above the Moscow River level and 150 m above sea level – is traversed by valleys of the calm Moscow River and many other medium and small rivers within the upper basin of the Volga River, which is one of the national natural symbols of Russia.
There are ten large artificial water reservoirs located to the west of the city in the upper Moscow River basin and to the north in the system of the Moscow Channel, all of which are of important economic and recreational resources for the Moscow region.
The Moscow Natural Reserve, defined and protected by the city legislation, encompasses a part of the Losiny Ostrov (Elks’ Island) National Park. The Reserve encompasses a series of 13 specially protected natural areas (comprising about 14% of the city territory and embracing some 110 large wooded areas and forest parks) as well as many smaller isolated green areas, parks, gardens, precincts and boulevards totalling an area of about 35,000 ha. The protecting green belt of Moscow is often called the «City’s lungs». Also, 120 natural areas situated within the city boundaries are regarded as natural heritage sites of regional and local importance.
The Moscow region is located in a seismic passive area of the earth’s crust. It does not have a history of serious natural disasters such as earthquakes, landslides or floods. Threats of potential natural hazards are estimated as negligible.