Bid Book » Book1 » Political and Economic Climate and Structure » Political Structure
Russia is a Federal Democracy with a republican form of government. The Russian Federation (RF) is a new and vibrant nation - yet a country where people of many nationalities and cultures have been living in peace and harmony for centuries.
Administratively, the Russian Federation is composed of 89 unique entities (subjects of the Federation according to country’s constitution) consisting of national republics (21) and autonomies (11), administrative-territorial regions and two cities of federal status, Moscow and Saint-Petersburg. Each entity has its own Charter (Constitution in a national republic), budget, legislative and executive authorities. The head of each entity (President in a national republic) is elected directly by the people for a 4-year term.
In order to ensure a close and cooperative working relationship, the entities of the Federation have been grouped into seven Federal Districts: North-West, Central (Moscow City included), the Volga, South, the Urals, Siberian and the Far East. The RF President’s representative in a federal district performs and manages supervisory and coordination-analytical, not administrative or executive, duties.
Each entity of the Federation consists of territorial-administrative districts, cities, towns, townships and rural administrative units, each with their own representative and executive authorities. A city or a town is usually subdivided into municipal districts.
The principle of local self-governance is enshrined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Local authorities are autonomous within the limits of their powers, independent within the framework of the State authorities.
The highest executive power in the country is exercised by the President and the Government of the Russian Federation. The RF President is elected by a direct nation-wide ballot for the term of four years. The Chairman of the RF Government is appointed by the President with the consent of the State Duma.
The highest legislative power is represented by the Federal Assembly consisting of two chambers (houses), namely, the Council of the Federation and the State Duma. Each entity of the Federation must delegate two representatives to the Council of the Federation. The State Duma is comprised of 450 deputies elected nation-wide for the term of four years.
Moscow City – the Federal Capital
Moscow enjoys the constitutional status of the Federal capital and an autonomous entity of the Federation. Therefore, the City has its own Charter, budget, executive authorities represented by the Mayor and the Government, and a legislature. The Moscow City Duma, consisting of 35 deputies, is elected from territorial districts. Both the Mayor and the Duma are elected by direct ballot for terms of four years. The Mayor forms and heads the Moscow City Government.
Moscow has a three-tier system of government: the City, administrative districts and municipal areas. As of today, Moscow has 10 administrative districts each headed by its own Prefect who has a seat in the City Government.
Within the framework of its constitutional authorities and the budget limits formed from its own sources, the Moscow City Government provides all kinds of vital services and manages the City’s social and economic development.
Accordingly, and taking into account the overall federal support, Moscow is duly empowered and has all the essential resources to independently solve the majority of issues that may arise in the course of the organisation and staging of the Games.
Each section of the city and federal authorities involved in organisation and staging of the Games will perform functions within their direct responsibilities and competence in accordance with the set tasks. The necessary co-ordination of their efforts will be effected by the Moscow OCOG, whose composition and structure ensures due representation of all the stakeholders. The day-to-day coordination of the preparatory work at this stage is managed by the First Vice-Premier of the RF Government, Mayor of Moscow, Moscow 2012 Bid Committee and its working commissions.